To My Haters
There is no such thing as Islamic science – for science is the most universal of human activities. But the means to facilitating scientific advances have always been dictated by culture, political will and economic wealth. What is only now becoming clear (to many in the west) is that during the dark ages of medieval Europe, incredible scientific advances were made in the Muslim world. Geniuses in Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus and Cordoba took on the scholarly works of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, India and China, developing what we would call “modern” science. New disciplines emerged – algebra, trigonometry and chemistry as well as major advances in medicine, astronomy, engineering and agriculture. Arabic texts replaced Greek as the fonts of wisdom, helping to shape the scientific revolution of the Renaissance. What the medieval scientists of the Muslim world articulated so brilliantly is that science is universal, the common language of the human race. The 1001 Inventions exhibition at London’s Science Museum tells some of the stories of this forgotten age. Here are my top six exhibits . . .
1. The elephant clock
This centrepiece of the exhibition is a three-metre high replica of an early 13th-century water clock and one of the engineering marvels of the medieval world. It was built by al-Jazari, and gives physical form to the concept of multiculturalism. It features an Indian elephant, Chinese dragons, a Greek water mechanism, an Egyptian phoenix, and wooden robots in traditional Arabian attire. The timing mechanism is based on a water-filled bucket hidden inside the elephant.
2. The camera obscura
The greatest scientist of the medieval world was a 10th century Arab by the name of Ibn al-Haytham. Among his many contributions to optics was the first correct explanation of how vision works. He used the Chinese invention of the camera obscura (or pinhole camera) to show how light travels in straight lines from the object to form an inverted image on the retina.
3. Al-Idrisi’s world map
This three-metre reproduction of the famous 12th-century map by the Andalusian cartographer, Al-Idrisi (1100-1166), was produced in Sicily and is regarded as the most elaborate and complete description of the world made in medieval times. It was used extensively by travellers for several centuries and contained detailed descriptions of the Christian north as well as the Islamic world, Africa and the Far East.
4. The Banu Musa brothers’ “ingenious devices”
These three brothers were celebrated mathematicians and engineers in ninth-century Baghdad. Their Book of Ingenious Devices, published in 850, was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices that included automata, puzzles and magic tricks as well as what we would today refer to as “executive toys”.
5. Al-Zahrawi’s surgical instruments
This array of weird and wonderful devices shows the sort of instruments being used by the 10th-century surgeon al-Zahrawi, who practised in Cordoba. His work was hugely influential in Europe and many of his instruments are still in use today. Among his best-known inventions were the syringe, the forceps, the surgical hook and needle, the bone saw and the lithotomy scalpel.
6. Ibn Firnas’ flying contraption
Abbas Ibn Firnas was a legendary ninth-century inventor and the Da Vinci of the Islamic world. He is honoured on Arabic postage stamps and has a crater on the moon named after him. He made his famous attempt at controlled flight when, aged 65, he built a rudimentary hang glider and launched himself from the side of a mountain. Some accounts claim he remained airborne for several minutes before landing badly and hurting his back.
Jim Al-Khalili is an author and broadcaster. He is professor of physics and of the public engagement in science at the University of Surrey.
Here’s another interesting story about the recent ISIS beheading which we chose not to say something about. The acting wasn’t that realistic, i.e. much worse than last time.
It turns out Steven Sotloff is a dual citizen of the US and Israel.
Two Louisiana high school teachers are accused of having a threesome with a student, WGNO-TV reports.
Police in Jefferson Parish charged Destrehan High School English teachers Shelley S. Dufresne, 32, and Rachel Respess, 24, with carnal knowledge of a juvenile, contributing to the delinquency of a juvenile and indecent behavior with a juvenile.
Police say the student, who was 16 at the time, went to one of the teacher’s apartments after a football game on Sept. 12. The police report says the student then began having sex with both teachers simultaneously until the early morning hours of Sept. 13.
The Times-Picayune reports police learned about the crime after the student was heard “bragging to other students that he was having a sexual relationship with teachers.” The student told his peers he had met the teachers multiple times and even documented some of their encounters on video, according to WGNO-TV.
Detectives say the student, who is now 17, told them his ongoing sexual relationship with the teachers was consensual. The legal age of consent in Louisiana is 17.
“No matter what sex the victim is, everyone should be outraged,” Kenner Police Chief Michael Glaser said. “You have an educator. Their responsibility is the safety and the education of children. … They should have known better.”
Respess has been teacher for two years and is an alumni of the high school where she works. Dufresne is currently in her 10th year as a teacher. She is also married with three young children. Both teachers are graduates of Louisiana State University.
Respess’ attorney says his client is innocent.
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